Generally you’ll want to learn tenses by grabbing a bunch of examples, making sure you understand what makes those examples present perfect, and then memorizing them.
If I were learning English, for instance, I’d
1. Go to this page:
2. Read the explanations and make sure I understood them
3. Made fill-in-the-blank, word-form flashcards with pictures for every single example sentence there
Front: “They __ married for nearly fifty years.” (to be)
[OR you could do: “They __ for nearly fifty years.” (to marry)]
Back: They’ve been married
Front: “have been married”
Back: They’ve been married for nearly fifty years
4. Add notes to the back sides of both flashcards describing WHY it’s in present perfect.
(i.e., for the previous examples, you’d want something like “Use Present Perfect for something that started in the past and continues in the present” on the back side of both cards)
5. Repeat until you have a few examples for every possible use of the Present Perfect.
If you do this, you’ll get a good feel for that tense IN THOSE SENTENCES, and an OK feel for that tense in new sentences. Then, whenever you’re speaking or writing and you find you make a mistake with a tense, add that as a new example to your flashcards and it will continue to push you in the direction of mastering that tense.